Topic list



Lectures (Lecturer: Tóth S.)
Tuesday 17.00-18.30,  NET L16

1st week

(11 Sept.)

Timeline of epigenetics; levels of epigenetic changes; targets of epigenetics

2nd week

(18 Sept.)

DNA methylation; de novo and maintenance methylation; DNMT interactions

3rd week

(25 Sept.)

Histone modifications; histone code; histone modifying enzymes

4th week

(2 Oct.)

Methylated DNA binding proteins; post-transcriptional RNA modifications; epitranscriptomics

5th week

(9 Oct.)

Polycomb and trithorax complexes; Chromatin remodelling

6th week

(16 Oct.)

Non-coding RNAs in epigenetic regulation; Genome imprinting
ppt   ppt

7th week

(23 Oct.)

National Holiday

8th week

(30 Oct.)

X inactivation and skewed X inactivation: their connection to DNA methylation

9th week

(6 Nov.)

Epigenetic changes during early development and gametogenesis; epigenetic consequences of cloning and ART

10th week

(13 Nov.)

Transgenerational epigenetics; epigenetics of endocrine disruptors; maternal behaviour and its epigenetic consequences; Paramutation, transvection; Transposons
ppt   ppt

11th week

(20 Nov.)

Small molecules, clock genes and intermediate metabolism in epigenetic regulation

12th week

(27 Nov.)

Role of epigenetics in carcinogenesis; epigenetic therapy in cancer; Mitotic bookmarking

13th week

(4 Dec.)

Epigenetics in aging and autoimmunity

14th week

(11 Dec.)

Behaviour and psychiatric diseases


The exam grade will be based on a written test. The test questions will cover the topics of the lectures presentations.

Lecturer: Sara Tóth  Phd, associate professor
NET 6th floor, room 619.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Phone: 210-2630/56244




  • Definition of epigenetics; levels of epigenetic regulation related to transcription; types of epigenetic processes; mutual/putative aim of epigenesis
  • DNA methylation; consequences of mC formation (nucleotide ratio, mutations, carcinogenesis); methyl donors; role of folate; CpG and CpG islands; CpG island and gene body and their methylation; DNMT1 and DNMT3, DNMT3L; alternative promoter use and alternative splicing in gametogenesis; MBD and MeCP2; Rett-syndrome; TET-enzymes, hydroxyl-methyl cytosine (5-hmC); 5-caC and 5-fC and their role in gene regulation
  • Histone modifications; histone code; frequently modified amino acids of histones; HAT and HDAC; HMT and HDM; interactions between the modified histones; bivalent histone modification in ES cells; alternative histone variants
  • Chromatin remodelling; polycomb and trithorax group of proteins; their interaction with  modified histones and DNA; CTCF and cohesion and functional organization of chromatin, TADs
  • Post-translational modifications; citrullination and disease; histone citrullination
  • Post transcriptional RNA modifications; epitranscriptomics
  • Types of non-coding RNAs; genomic localization; tsRNA, siRNA and RNAi; microRNAs (pri-miR and pre-RNA) and lncRNAs (Xist and lincRNA); gene silencing through these RNAs; types of interactions leading to gene expression modification
  • Position effect; silencing of transposons and retroviral elements; IAP and agouti and yellow colour; food supplementation;
  • Imprinting; parental conflict theory; IGF2 and IGF2R; bipedality as an evolutionary explanation; loss of imprinting (LOI); inprinting diseases; Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes; differentially methylated regions (DMRs); Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russel syndromes; UDP as a cause of imprinting diseases; imprinting centres (ICs), insulators;
  • X-chromosome inactivation; random and imprinted; dose compensatory mechanisms; XIC and XIST; counting and choice; Tsix; MSUD; skewed X inactivation and diseases/phenomena related to it; territorial arrangement of X inactivation; evolutionary and tissue specific differences in X inactivation; escape and escapees,; DNA methylation and characteristic histone modifications;
  • Paramutation; transvection; mitotic  bookmarking; RNA and protein transfer from parents to offspring;
  • DNA methylation during the early stages of embryogenesis; pluripotency factors in X inactivation and in reprogramming; ES and iPS cells in epigenetic research; epigenetic events in reprogramming; cloning; ART and increased Beckwith–Wiedemann birth rate; Transgenerational epigenesis; Dutch famine; role of diet, calory restriction, endocrine disruptors and maternal behaviour;
  • Cancer epigenetics; CpG island hypermethylation; gene body hypomethylation; genetic and epigenetic interactions; genome instability; CpG island shore methylation; TSG and oncogene silencing and activation; cell cycle regulatory and DNA repair proteins as targets of epimutations; HDAC and DNMT inhibitors: problem of specificity and targeting resistance;
  • Epigenetics of aging; telomeres and telomerase in aging; subtelomeric and telomeric epigenetic features; twin studies; aging regulatory network;
  • Maternal behaviour and its transgenerational epigenetic consequences; mental diseases (ADHD, schizophrenia and psychosis) and epigenetics; social status, stress and their epigenetic effects; 


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