Topic list



Lectures (Lecturer: Tóth S.)
Tuesday 17.00-18.30,  NET L16

1st week

(12 Sept.)

Timeline of epigenetics; levels of epigenetic changes; targets of epigenetics

2nd week

(19 Sept.)

DNA methylation; de novo and maintenance methylation; DNMT interactions

3rd week

(26 Sept.)

Histone modifications; histone code; histone modifying enzymes

4th week

(03 Oct.)

Citrullination; Methylated DNA binding proteins; post-transcriptional RNA modifications; epitranscriptomics

5th week

(10 Oct.)

Polycomb and trithorax complexes; Chromatin remodelling

6th week

(17 Oct.)

Non-coding RNAs in epigenetic regulation; Transposons; Paramutation, transvection

7th week

(24 Oct.)

Genome imprinting

8th week

(31 Oct.)

X inactivation and skewed X inactivation: their connection to DNA methylation

9th week

(07 Nov.)

Epigenetic changes during early development and gametogenesis; epigenetic consequences of cloning and ART

10th week

(14 Nov.)

Transgenerational epigenetics; epigenetics of endocrine disruptors; maternal behaviour and its epigenetic consequences

11th week

(24 Nov.)

Small molecules, clock genes and intermediate metabolism in epigenetic regulation

12th week

(28 Nov.)

Role of epigenetics in carcinogenesis; epigenetic therapy in cancer; Mitotic bookmarking

13th week

(05 Dec.)

Epigenetics in aging and autoimmunity

14th week

(12 Dec.)

Epigenetic changes in diseases of the central nervous system


The exam grade will be based on a written test. The test questions will cover the topics of the lectures presentations.

Lecturer: Sara Tóth  Phd, associate professor
NET 6th floor, room 619.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Phone: 210-2630/56244




  • Definition of epigenetics; levels of epigenetic regulation related to transcription; types of epigenetic processes; mutual/putative aim of epigenesis
  • DNA methylation; consequences of mC formation (nucleotide ratio, mutations, carcinogenesis); methyl donors; role of folate; CpG and CpG islands; CpG island and gene body and their methylation; DNMT1 and DNMT3, DNMT3L; alternative promoter use and alternative splicing in gametogenesis; MBD and MeCP2; Rett-syndrome; TET-enzymes, hydroxyl-methyl cytosine (5-hmC); 5-caC and 5-fC and their role in gene regulation
  • Histone modifications; histone code; frequently modified amino acids of histones; HAT and HDAC; HMT and HDM; interactions between the modified histones; bivalent histone modification in ES cells; alternative histone variants
  • Chromatin remodelling; polycomb and trithorax group of proteins; their interaction with modified histones and DNA; CTCF and cohesion and functional organization of chromatin, TADs
  • Post-translational modifications; citrullination and disease; histone citrullination
  • Post transcriptional RNA modifications; epitranscriptomics
  • Types of non-coding RNAs; genomic localization; tsRNA, siRNA and RNAi; microRNAs (pri-miR and pre-RNA) and lncRNAs (Xist and lincRNA); gene silencing through these RNAs; types of interactions leading to gene expression modification
  • Position effect; silencing of transposons and retroviral elements; IAP and agouti and yellow colour; food supplementation;
  • Imprinting; parental conflict theory; IGF2 and IGF2R; bipedality as an evolutionary explanation; loss of imprinting (LOI); inprinting diseases; Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes; differentially methylated regions (DMRs); Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russel syndromes; UDP as a cause of imprinting diseases; imprinting centres (ICs), insulators;
  • X-chromosome inactivation; random and imprinted; dose compensatory mechanisms; XIC and XIST; counting and choice; Tsix; MSUD; skewed X inactivation and diseases/phenomena related to it; territorial arrangement of X inactivation; evolutionary and tissue specific differences in X inactivation; escape and escapees,; DNA methylation and characteristic histone modifications;
  • Paramutation; transvection; mitotic bookmarking; RNA and protein transfer from parents to offspring;
  • DNA methylation during the early stages of embryogenesis; pluripotency factors in X inactivation and in reprogramming; ES and iPS cells in epigenetic research; cloning; ART and increased Beckwith–Wiedemann birth rate; Transgenerational epigenesis; Dutch famine; role of diet, calory restriction, endocrine disruptors and maternal behaviour;
  • Cancer epigenetics; CpG island hypermethylation; gene body hypomethylation; genetic and epigenetic interactions; genome instability; CpG island shore methylation; TSG and oncogene silencing and activation; cell cycle regulatory and DNA repair proteins as targets of epimutations; HDAC and DNMT inhibitors: problem of specificity and targeting resistance;
  • Epigenetics of aging; telomeres and telomerase in aging; subtelomeric and telomeric epigenetic features; twin studies; aging regulatory network;
  • Maternal behaviour and its transgenerational epigenetic consequences; mental diseases (ADHD, schizophrenia and psychosis) and epigenetics; social status, stress and their epigenetic effects;


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